ESP Report: The Effectiveness and Risks of Cranial Electrical Stimulation
Paul Shekelle, MD, PhD
Isomi M. Miake-Lye, PhDc;
Roberta Shanman, MLS;
Jessica M. Beroes, BS
Evidence-based Synthesis Program (ESP) Center, West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA
Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs; February 2018.
Download PDF: Complete Report, Executive Summary, Report, Appendices
Cranial electrical stimulation (CES) is increasing in popularity as a treatment, yet of uncertain clinical benefit.
To review evidence about the effectiveness and harms of CES for patients with chronic painful conditions, depression, anxiety, PTSD, and insomnia.
1. Compared to usual care, what is the effectiveness of cranial electrical stimulation (CES) for the following conditions: chronic pain, depression, anxiety, PTSD, and insomnia?
2. Compared to usual care, what are the risks of cranial electrical stimulation (CES) for the following conditions: chronic pain, depression, anxiety, PTSD, and insomnia?
Shekelle PG, Cook IA, Miake-Lye IM, Booth MS, Beros JM, Mak S. Benefits and Harms of Cranial Electrial Stimulation for Chronic Painful Conditions, Depression, Anxiety, and Insomnia: A Systematic Review. Annals of Internal Medicine. Published online February 13, 2018. doi: 10.7326/M17-1970.
The Effectiveness and Risks of Cranial Electrical Stimulation (Management Brief)