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Hydration and acute confusion in long-term care residents.
Culp K, Mentes J, Wakefield B. Hydration and acute confusion in long-term care residents. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2003 Apr 1; 25(3):251-66; discussion 267-73.
Although it is generally appropriate for a healthy adult to consume 2000 to 2500 ml per day, the literature does not address evaluating any standard. The objective here was to develop a weight-based hydration management intervention and evaluate the impact of this on the incidence of acute confusion (AC) using an N = 98. The intervention consisted of a fluid intake goal based on 100 ml per kg for the first 10 kg, 50 ml/kg for the next 10 kg, and 15 ml for the remaining body weight. The treatment group received instruction and assistance on the fluid goal and the control group received routine care. Measurements included serum electrolytes, bioimpedance analysis, urinalysis, Mini-Mental State Exam, and the NEECHAM. There was no difference in the incidence of AC between treatment and controls, but those individuals with > or = 90% compliance demonstrated higher ECF volumes and also lower urine leukocyte counts.