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Maintenance of Weight Loss After Initiation of Nutrition Training: A Randomized Trial.

Voils CI, Olsen MK, Gierisch JM, McVay MA, Grubber JM, Gaillard L, Bolton J, Maciejewski ML, Strawbridge E, Yancy WS. Maintenance of Weight Loss After Initiation of Nutrition Training: A Randomized Trial. Annals of internal medicine. 2017 Apr 4; 166(7):463-471.

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Background: Weight regain after successful weight loss interventions is common. Objective: To establish the efficacy of a weight loss maintenance program compared with usual care in obese adults. Design: 2-group, parallel, randomized trial stratified by initial weight loss ( < 10 kg vs. 10 kg), conducted from 20 August 2012 to 18 December 2015. Outcome assessors were blinded to treatment assignment. ( NCT01357551). Setting: 3 primary care clinics at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Durham and Raleigh, North Carolina. Patients: Obese outpatients (body mass index 30 kg/m2) who lost 4 kg or more of body weight during a 16-week, group-based weight loss program. Intervention: The maintenance intervention, delivered primarily by telephone, addressed satisfaction with outcomes, relapse-prevention planning, self-monitoring, and social support. Usual care involved no contact except for study measurements. Measurements: Primary outcome was mean weight regain at week 56. Secondary outcomes included self-reported caloric intake, walking, and moderate physical activity. Results: Of 504 patients in the initial program, 222 lost at least 4 kg of body weight and were randomly assigned to maintenance (n = 110) or usual care (n = 112). Retention was 85%. Most patients were middle-aged white men. Mean weight loss during initiation was 7.2 kg (SD, 3.1); mean weight at randomization was 103.6 kg (SD, 20.4). Estimated mean weight regain was statistically significantly lower in the intervention (0.75 kg) than the usual care (2.36 kg) group (estimated mean difference, 1.60 kg [95% CI, 0.07 to 3.13 kg]; P = 0.040). No statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes were seen at 56 weeks. No adverse events directly attributable to the intervention were observed. Limitations: Results may not generalize to other settings or populations. Dietary intake and physical activity were self-reported. Duration was limited to 56 weeks. Conclusion: An intervention focused on maintenance-specific strategies and delivered in a resource-conserving way modestly slowed the rate of weight regain in obese adults. Primary Funding Source: Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Service.

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