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Changes in bacterial epidemiology and antibiotic resistance among veterans with spinal cord injury/disorder over the past 9 years.
Fitzpatrick MA, Suda KJ, Safdar N, Burns SP, Jones MM, Poggensee L, Ramanathan S, Evans CT. Changes in bacterial epidemiology and antibiotic resistance among veterans with spinal cord injury/disorder over the past 9 years. The journal of spinal cord medicine. 2018 Mar 1; 41(2):199-207.
Patients with spinal cord injury and disorder (SCI/D) have an increased risk of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. We described bacterial epidemiology and resistance in patients with SCI/D at Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) for the past 9 years.
One hundred thirty VAMCs.
Veterans with SCI/D and bacterial cultures with antibiotic susceptibility testing performed between 1/1/2005-12/31/2013. Single cultures with contaminants and duplicate isolates within 30 days of initial isolates were excluded.
Trends in microbial epidemiology and antibiotic resistance.
Included were 216,504 isolates from 19,421 patients. Urine was the most common source and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were isolated most often, with 36.1% of GNB being MDR. Logistic regression models clustered by patient and adjusted for location at an SCI/D center and geographic region showed increased odds over time of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-2.15], while methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus remained unchanged (aOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.74-1.09). There were also increased odds of fluoroquinolone resistance (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.31-1.47) and multidrug resistance (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.38-1.55) in GNB, with variability in the odds of MDR bacteria by geographic region.
GNB are isolated frequently in Veterans with SCI/D and have demonstrated increasing resistance over the past 9 years. Priority should be given to controlling the spread of resistant bacteria in this population. Knowledge of local and regional epidemiologic trends in antibiotic resistance in patients with SCI/D may improve appropriate antibiotic prescribing.