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Designing a theory-based intervention to improve the guideline-concordant use of imaging to stage incident prostate cancer.

Ciprut S, Sedlander E, Watts KL, Matulewicz RS, Stange KC, Sherman SE, Makarov DV. Designing a theory-based intervention to improve the guideline-concordant use of imaging to stage incident prostate cancer. Urologic oncology. 2018 May 1; 36(5):246-251.

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Among US men, most new prostate cancer cases are clinically localized and do not require imaging as part of staging workup according to guidelines. Two leading specialty societies promote stewardship of health resources by encouraging guideline-concordant care, thereby limiting inappropriate and obsolete imaging. However, imaging to stage low-risk prostate cancer remains high, as almost half of men with localized prostate cancer undergo wasteful imaging following diagnosis. We employed a theory-based approach, based on current evidence and data on existing practice patterns revealing that providers are the drivers to imaging decisions, to design an intervention to improve guideline -concordant prostate cancer staging imaging across populations. We conceptualized preliminary results using the theoretical domains framework and the behavior change wheel, frameworks used concurrently to investigate physicians' behaviors and intervention design in various clinical settings. Through these 2 frameworks, we designed a theory-based, physician-focused intervention to efficiently encourage guideline-concordant prostate cancer imaging, prostate cancer imaging stewardship (PCIS). Prostate cancer imaging stewardship consists of interventions (clinical order check, academic detailing, and audit and feedback) implemented at the individual, facility, and system level to enact provider behavior change by enabling facilitators and appealing to physician motivation.

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