Health Services Research & Development

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Chou AF, Graber CJ, Zhang Y, Jones M, Goetz MB, Madaras-Kelly K, Samore M, Glassman PA. Specifying an implementation framework for Veterans Affairs antimicrobial stewardship programmes: using a factor analysis approach. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2018 Sep 1; 73(9):2559-2566.
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Abstract: Objectives: Inappropriate antibiotic use poses a serious threat to patient safety. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) may optimize antimicrobial use and improve patient outcomes, but their implementation remains an organizational challenge. Using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework, this study aimed to identify organizational factors that may facilitate ASP design, development and implementation. Methods: Among 130 Veterans Affairs facilities that offered acute care, we classified organizational variables supporting antimicrobial stewardship activities into three PARiHS domains: evidence to encompass sources of knowledge; contexts to translate evidence into practice; and facilitation to enhance the implementation process. We conducted a series of exploratory factor analyses to identify conceptually linked factor scales. Cronbach's alphas were calculated. Variables with large uniqueness values were left as single factors. Results: We identified 32 factors, including six constructs derived from factor analyses under the three PARiHS domains. In the evidence domain, four factors described guidelines and clinical pathways. The context domain was broken into three main categories: (i) receptive context (15 factors describing resources, affiliations/networks, formalized policies/practices, decision-making, receptiveness to change); (ii) team functioning (1 factor); and (iii) evaluation/feedback (5 factors). Within facilitation, two factors described facilitator roles and tasks and five captured skills and training. Conclusions: We mapped survey data onto PARiHS domains to identify factors that may be adapted to facilitate ASP uptake. Our model encompasses mostly mutable factors whose relationships with performance outcomes may be explored to optimize antimicrobial use. Our framework also provides an analytical model for determining whether leveraging existing organizational processes can potentially optimize ASP performance.