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A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between vitamin A intake, serum vitamin A, and risk of liver cancer.
Leelakanok N, D'Cunha RR, Sutamtewagul G, Schweizer ML. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between vitamin A intake, serum vitamin A, and risk of liver cancer. Nutrition and health. 2018 Jun 1; 24(2):121-131.
Previous evidence supports that vitamin A decreases the risk of several types of cancer. However, the association between vitamin A and liver cancer is inconclusive.
This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes the existing literature, discussing the association between vitamin A intake, serum vitamin A, and liver cancer in adult populations.
A systematic literature review was performed by searching the EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus and International Pharmaceutical Abstract databases using terms related to vitamin A (e.g. retinol, a-carotene, ß-carotene, and ß-cryptoxanthin) and hepatic cancer without applying any time restriction. A meta-analysis was performed using random effect models.
The meta-analysis of five studies showed no association between serum retinol and liver cancer (pooled risk ratio = 1.90 (0.40-9.02); n = 5 studies, I = 92%). In addition, the systematic review of studies from 1955 to July 2017 found studies that indicated no association between the intake and serum level of a-carotene ( n = 2) and ß-cryptoxanthin ( n = 1) and the risk of liver cancer. Further, the associations between retinol intake ( n = 3), ß-carotene intake ( n = 3), or serum ß-carotene ( n = 3) and liver cancer were inconclusive.
Current information on the association between vitamin A intake and liver cancer or serum vitamin A and liver cancer are limited. Most studies demonstrated no association between dietary vitamin A and the risk of liver cancer. However, the finding was based on a small number of studies with potential publication bias. Therefore, large observational studies should be conducted to confirm these associations.