Health Services Research & Development

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Battaglia C, Glasgow RE. Pragmatic dissemination and implementation research models, methods and measures and their relevance for nursing research. Nursing Outlook. 2018 Sep 1; 66(5):430-445.
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Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pragmatic dissemination and implementation (D&I) research approaches can benefit patient care because they emphasize real-world settings and populations. Nurse scientists have an opportunity to reduce the gap between science and practice by using pragmatic D&I research and sustainability strategies. PURPOSE: This article discusses pragmatic models, methods, and measures used in D&I research and their relevance for nursing research and enhancing population health. METHODS: Summary of pragmatic D&I models and related methods for designing a pragmatic studies. We discuss the RE-AIM framework and the PRECIS-2 planning aid and figure in detail. A case study is provided and application to nursing research is discussed. DISCUSSION: Successful translation of pragmatic D&I research demands an approach that addresses external validity, and customization at multiple levels including the patient, clinician, and setting. Context is critically important, and it is never too early to design for dissemination. CONCLUSIONS: Pragmatic D&I approaches are needed to speed research translation, reduce avoidable waste of funding, improve clinical care, and enhance population health. Pragmatic D&I research is an area of tremendous opportunity for the nursing science community.