Health Services Research & Development

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Yarborough BJH, Stumbo SP, Stoneburner A, Smith N, Dobscha SK, Deyo RA, Morasco BJ. Correlates of Benzodiazepine Use and Adverse Outcomes Among Patients with Chronic Pain Prescribed Long-term Opioid Therapy. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.). 2018 Sep 10.
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Abstract: Objective: To examine the correlates and odds of receiving overlapping benzodiazepine and opioid prescriptions and whether co-prescription was associated with greater odds of falling or visiting the emergency department. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A large private integrated health system and a Veterans Health Administration integrated health system. Subjects: Five hundred seventeen adults with musculoskeletal pain and current prescriptions for long-term opioid therapy. Methods: A multivariate logistic regression model examined correlates of having overlapping benzodiazepine and opioid prescriptions in the year before enrollment in the cross-sectional study. Negative binomial models analyzed the number of falls in the past three months and past-year emergency department visits. In addition to propensity score adjustment, models controlled for demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, medications, overall comorbidity score, and opioid morphine equivalent dose. Results: Twenty-five percent (N?=?127) of participants had co-occurring benzodiazepine and opioid prescriptions in the prior year. Odds of receiving a benzodiazepine prescription were significantly higher among patients with the following psychiatric diagnoses: anxiety disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67-8.32, P?