Health Services Research & Development

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Frankel WC, Trautner BW, Spiegelman A, Grigoryan L, LeMaire SA. Patients at Risk for Aortic Rupture Often Exposed to Fluoroquinolones during Hospitalization. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2019 Feb 1; 63(2).
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Abstract: Several studies have indicated that fluoroquinolone use may be associated with an increased risk of aortic aneurysm or dissection (AAD). Because patients with AAD or Marfan syndrome are at increased risk for aortic rupture, we performed a retrospective cohort study to determine the prevalence of systemic fluoroquinolone exposure and predictors of fluoroquinolone use in these patients. Data were obtained from the advisory board billing and administrative database, which contained information on 22 million adult hospitalizations in the United States for the study period (2009 to 2015). International Classification of Diseases (9/10) and Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify patients who had AAD or Marfan syndrome or underwent aortic repair. We identified 136,789 admissions for AAD, which involved 99,818 unique patients, 20% of whom received fluoroquinolone during a hospital admission. Of the 7,045 patients with dissection, 18% were exposed to fluoroquinolone. Of the 27,876 AAD patients who underwent aortic repair, 19% received fluoroquinolone during a hospitalization before the repair. In the AAD patients, having a diagnosis of pneumonia or urinary tract infection increased the likelihood of receiving fluoroquinolone during admission by 46% and 40%, respectively ( < 0.001). Additionally, we identified 2,871 admissions for Marfan syndrome, which involved 1,872 patients, 14% of whom received fluoroquinolone during an admission. In these patients, pneumonia and urinary tract infections also increased the risk of fluoroquinolone exposure. If the deleterious effects of fluoroquinolone on aortic integrity are substantiated, reducing fluoroquinolone use in hospitalized patients with aortic disorders will become an urgent safety issue for antibiotic stewardship programs.