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Overdose risk for veterans receiving opioids from multiple sources.

Jasuja GK, Ameli O, Miller DR, Land T, Bernson D, Rose AJ, Berlowitz DR, Smelson DA. Overdose risk for veterans receiving opioids from multiple sources. The American journal of managed care. 2018 Nov 1; 24(11):536-540.

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Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether veterans in Massachusetts receiving opioids and/or benzodiazepines from both Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and non-VHA pharmacies are at higher risk of adverse events compared with those receiving opioids at VHA pharmacies only. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study of veterans who filled a prescription for any Schedule II through V substance at a Massachusetts VHA pharmacy. Prescriptions were recorded in the Massachusetts Department of Public Health Chapter 55 data set. METHODS: The study sample included 16,866 veterans residing in Massachusetts, of whom 9238 (54.8%) received controlled substances from VHA pharmacies only and 7628 (45.2%) had filled prescriptions at both VHA and non-VHA pharmacies ("dual care users") between October 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. Our primary outcomes were nonfatal opioid overdose, fatal opioid overdose, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Compared with VHA-only users, more dual care users resided in rural areas (12.6% vs 10.6%), received high-dose opioid therapy (26.3% vs 7.3%), had concurrent prescriptions of opioids and benzodiazepines (34.8% vs 8.2%), and had opioid use disorder (6.8% vs 1.6%) (P < .0001 for all). In adjusted models, dual care users had higher odds of nonfatal opioid overdose (odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% CI, 0.98-1.71) and all-cause mortality (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.43-1.93) compared with VHA-only users. Dual care use was not associated with fatal opioid overdoses. CONCLUSIONS: Among veterans in Massachusetts, receipt of opioids from multiple sources was associated with worse outcomes, specifically nonfatal opioid overdose and mortality. Better information sharing between VHA and non-VHA pharmacies and prescribers has the potential to improve patient safety.





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