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Parikh CR, Liu C, Mor MK, Palevsky PM, Kaufman JS, Thiessen Philbrook H, Weisbord SD. Kidney Biomarkers of Injury and Repair as Predictors of Contrast-Associated AKI: A Substudy of the PRESERVE Trial. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 2020 Feb 1; 75(2):187-194.
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Abstract: RATIONALE and OBJECTIVE: The PRESERVE trial used a 2 × 2 factorial design to compare intravenous saline solution with intravenous sodium bicarbonate solution and oral N-acetylcysteine with placebo for the prevention of 90-day major adverse kidney events and death (MAKE-D) and contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) among patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing angiography. In this ancillary study, we evaluated the predictive capacities of preangiography injury and repair proteins in urine and plasma for MAKE-D, CA-AKI, and their impact on trial design. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis. SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: A subset of participants from the PRESERVE trial. EXPOSURES: Injury (KIM-1, NGAL, and IL-18) and repair (MCP-1, UMOD, and YKL-40) proteins in urine and plasma 1 to 2 hours preangiography. OUTCOMES: MAKE-D and CA-AKI. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We analyzed the associations of preangiography biomarkers with MAKE-D and with CA-AKI. We evaluated whether the biomarker levels could enrich the MAKE-D event rate and improve future clinical trial efficiency through an online biomarker prognostic enrichment tool available at prognosticenrichment.com. RESULTS: We measured plasma biomarkers in 916 participants and urine biomarkers in 797 participants. After adjusting for urinary albumin-creatinine ratio and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, preangiography levels of 4 plasma (KIM-1, NGAL, UMOD, and YKL-40) and 3 urine (NGAL, IL-18, and YKL-40) biomarkers were associated with MAKE-D. Only plasma KIM-1 level was significantly associated with CA-AKI after adjustment. Biomarker levels provided modest discriminatory capacity for MAKE-D. Screening patients using the 50th percentile of preangiography plasma KIM-1 or YKL-40 levels would have reduced the required sample size by 30% (~2,000 participants). LIMITATIONS: Evaluation of prognostic enrichment does not account for changing trial costs, time needed to screen patients, or loss to follow-up. Most participants were male, limiting the generalizability of our findings. CONCLUSIONS: Preangiography levels of injury and repair biomarkers modestly predict the development of MAKE-D and can be used to improve the efficiency of future CA-AKI trials.

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