HSR&D Citation Abstract
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Parikh CR, Liu C, Mor MK, Palevsky PM, Kaufman JS, Thiessen Philbrook H, Weisbord SD. Kidney Biomarkers of Injury and Repair as Predictors of Contrast-Associated AKI: A Substudy of the PRESERVE Trial. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 2020 Feb 1; 75(2):187-194.
RATIONALE and OBJECTIVE:
The PRESERVE trial used a 2 × 2 factorial design to compare intravenous saline solution with intravenous sodium bicarbonate solution and oral N-acetylcysteine with placebo for the prevention of 90-day major adverse kidney events and death (MAKE-D) and contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) among patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing angiography. In this ancillary study, we evaluated the predictive capacities of preangiography injury and repair proteins in urine and plasma for MAKE-D, CA-AKI, and their impact on trial design.
SETTING and PARTICIPANTS:
A subset of participants from the PRESERVE trial.
Injury (KIM-1, NGAL, and IL-18) and repair (MCP-1, UMOD, and YKL-40) proteins in urine and plasma 1 to 2 hours preangiography.
MAKE-D and CA-AKI.
We analyzed the associations of preangiography biomarkers with MAKE-D and with CA-AKI. We evaluated whether the biomarker levels could enrich the MAKE-D event rate and improve future clinical trial efficiency through an online biomarker prognostic enrichment tool available at prognosticenrichment.com.
We measured plasma biomarkers in 916 participants and urine biomarkers in 797 participants. After adjusting for urinary albumin-creatinine ratio and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, preangiography levels of 4 plasma (KIM-1, NGAL, UMOD, and YKL-40) and 3 urine (NGAL, IL-18, and YKL-40) biomarkers were associated with MAKE-D. Only plasma KIM-1 level was significantly associated with CA-AKI after adjustment. Biomarker levels provided modest discriminatory capacity for MAKE-D. Screening patients using the 50th percentile of preangiography plasma KIM-1 or YKL-40 levels would have reduced the required sample size by 30% (~2,000 participants).
Evaluation of prognostic enrichment does not account for changing trial costs, time needed to screen patients, or loss to follow-up. Most participants were male, limiting the generalizability of our findings.
Preangiography levels of injury and repair biomarkers modestly predict the development of MAKE-D and can be used to improve the efficiency of future CA-AKI trials.