skip to page content
Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

Health Services Research & Development

Go to the ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR&D Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Predictors of Clostridioides difficile recurrence across a national cohort of veterans in outpatient, acute, and long-term care settings.

Appaneal HJ, Caffrey AR, Beganovic M, Avramovic S, LaPlante KL. Predictors of Clostridioides difficile recurrence across a national cohort of veterans in outpatient, acute, and long-term care settings. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 2019 Apr 17; 76(9):581-590.

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


PURPOSE: The greatest challenge in treating Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is disease recurrence, which occurs in about 20% of patients, usually within 30 days of treatment cessation. We sought to identify independent predictors of first recurrence among a national cohort of veterans with CDI. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among acute and long-term care Veterans Affairs (VA) inpatients and outpatients with a first CDI episode (positive stool sample for C. difficile toxin[s] and receipt of at least 2 days of CDI treatment) between 2010 and 2014. Cases experienced first recurrence within 30 days from the end of treatment. Controls were those without first recurrence matched 4:1 to cases on year, facility, and severity. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to identify predictors of first recurrence. RESULTS: We identified 32 predictors of first recurrence among 974 cases and 3,896 matched controls. Significant predictors included medication use prior to (probiotics, fluoroquinolones, laxatives, third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins), during (first- or second-generation cephalosporins, penicillin/amoxicillin/ampicillin, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins), and after CDI treatment (probiotics, any antibiotic, proton pump inhibitors [PPIs], and immunosuppressants). Other predictors included current biliary tract disease, malaise/fatigue, cellulitis/abscess, solid organ cancer, medical history of HIV, multiple myeloma, abdominal pain, and ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSION: In a large national cohort of outpatient and acute and long-term care inpatients, treatment with certain antibiotics, PPIs, immunosuppressants, and underlying disease were among the most important risk factors for first CDI recurrence.

Questions about the HSR&D website? Email the Web Team

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.