HSR&D Citation Abstract
Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title
Porter Starr KN, Connelly MA, Orenduff MC, McDonald SR, Sloane R, Huffman KM, Kraus WE, Bales CW. Impact on cardiometabolic risk of a weight loss intervention with higher protein from lean red meat: Combined results of 2 randomized controlled trials in obese middle-aged and older adults. Journal of clinical lipidology. 2019 Nov 1; 13(6):920-931.
The recognized benefits of a higher protein diet on muscle mass and strength in older adults are tempered by concerns of the potentially negative cardiometabolic impact of dietary sources of animal protein.
The aim of this study was to explore the cardiometabolic impact of 2 weight reduction diets: a higher protein diet, providing balanced portions of lean beef and pork throughout the day, vs. a diet following the Recommended Daily Allowance level of protein in obese middle-aged and older adults.
Data from Measuring Eating, Activity and Strength: Understanding the Response-Using Protein and Protein Optimization in Women Enables Results-Using Protein were combined for the present analysis. Subjects were randomly assigned to a 6-month weight loss diet (500 kcal deficit) and prescribed a Recommended Daily Allowance level of protein (0.8 g protein/kg BW), control group, or a higher level of protein (1.2 g protein/kg BW), protein group. For the protein group, lean, high-quality protein was evenly distributed between meals or balanced throughout the day (30 g protein/meal). The following cardiometabolic markers were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: lipids, lipoproteins, GlycA, trimethylamine-N-oxide, betaine, branched-chain amino acids, and lipoprotein insulin resistance index scores.
In both groups (control [n = 27] and protein [n = 53]), there were significant (P = .05) changes from baseline in weight loss (-6.2% and -7.2%), distance walked (+53.1 and +75.0 meters), and fasting plasma glucose (-7.5 and -6.2 mg/dL), respectively. At endpoint, protein group had significantly (P = .05) lower triglycerides (-17.3 mg/dL), large very-low-density lipoprotein particle concentration (VLDL-P; -1.2 nmol/L), total low-density lipoprotein particle concentration (LDL-P; -67.8 nmol/L), small LDL-P (-59.4 nmol/L) and lipoprotein insulin resistance index (-5.9), whereas control group had significantly (P = .05) lower GlycA (-13.1 µmol/L), total VLDL-P (-7.9 nmol/L), and small VLDL-P (-7.0 nmol/L). Differences between groups were observed for small VLDL-P (P = .02) and protein intake (P < .0001).
These findings suggest that a hypocaloric diet with either traditional (0.8 g/kg BW/d) or higher protein (1.2 g/kg BW/d; predominantly from lean red meat) content improves risk markers of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes in obese middle-aged and older adults. Both diets were also associated with improved physical function, and neither had an adverse impact on cardiometabolic outcomes.