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Kramer NE, Cosgrove VE, Dunlap K, Subramaniapillai M, McIntyre RS, Suppes T. A clinical model for identifying an inflammatory phenotype in mood disorders. Journal of psychiatric research. 2019 Jun 1; 113:148-158.
Increasingly, clinical research has found inflammatory correlates of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood symptomatology. Biological measures may provide greater precision in many cases and may capture clinically-relevant inflammatory signposts, such as central obesity risk, inflammation-associated co-morbid medical conditions, or proinflammatory lifestyle choices. In order to expand understanding of the role of inflammation in mood disorders, we propose a more inclusive clinical model for capturing an inflammatory phenotype of depression by identifying clinically-relevant inflammatory phenotypes grounded in biology. Our model includes chronic conditions and lifestyle behaviors associated with clinically elevated inflammation in mood disorders. Elements of this "inflamed depression" model include: obesity, low HDL concentrations, elevated triglyceride concentrations, chronically elevated blood pressure, clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism, migraines, rheumatoid arthritis, adult onset diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, inflammatory skin conditions, and lifestyle factors including smoking cigarettes and chronic stress.