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Nguyen KA, Patel H, Haggstrom DA, Zillich AJ, Imperiale TF, Russ AL. Utilizing a user-centered approach to develop and assess pharmacogenomic clinical decision support for thiopurine methyltransferase. BMC medical informatics and decision making. 2019 Oct 17; 19(1):194.
BACKGROUND: A pharmacogenomic clinical decision support tool (PGx-CDS) for thiopurine medications can help physicians incorporate pharmacogenomic results into prescribing decisions by providing up-to-date, real-time decision support. However, the PGx-CDS user interface may introduce errors and promote alert fatigue. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a prototype of a PGx-CDS user interface for thiopurine medications with user-centered design methods. METHODS: This study had two phases: In phase I, we conducted qualitative interviews to assess providers' information needs. Interview transcripts were analyzed through a combination of inductive and deductive qualitative analysis to develop design requirements for a PGx-CDS user interface. Using these requirements, we developed a user interface prototype and evaluated its usability (phase II). RESULTS: In total, 14 providers participated: 10 were interviewed in phase I, and seven providers completed usability testing in phase II (3 providers participated in both phases). Most (90%) participants were interested in PGx-CDS systems to help improve medication efficacy and patient safety. Interviews yielded 11 themes sorted into two main categories: 1) health care providers' views on PGx-CDS and 2) important design features for PGx-CDS. We organized these findings into guidance for PGx-CDS content and display. Usability testing of the PGx-CDS prototype showed high provider satisfaction. CONCLUSION: This is one of the first studies to utilize a user-centered design approach to develop and assess a PGx-CDS interface prototype for Thiopurine Methyltransferase (TPMT). This study provides guidance for the development of a PGx-CDS, and particularly for biomarkers such as TPMT.