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Patel PM, Sweigert SE, Nelson M, Gupta G, Baker M, Weaver FM, McVary KT. Disparities in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Progression: Predictors of Presentation to the Emergency Department in Urinary Retention. The Journal of urology. 2020 Aug 1; 204(2):332-336.
PURPOSE: This retrospective cohort study evaluates the characteristics of patients who presented to the emergency department with acute urinary retention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Emergency Department Databases we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who presented to emergency departments in Florida between 2005 and 2015. Male patients age 45 years or older who presented with diagnosis codes for acute urinary retention and lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia were considered. Information was collected on age, race/ethnicity, primary insurance and rural-urban commuting area codes. RESULTS: The mean age for males presenting with acute urinary retention was 72.2 years, which was 10.6 years older than those presenting for nonurological complaints (p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis adjusted for measured confounders found all covariates to be significant. The risk of presenting to the emergency department for acute urinary retention from lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia increased with age, with the 75 to less than 85-year-old age group at the highest risk (OR 15.96, p < 0.001). Other factors associated acute urinary retention included African American (OR 1.15, p < 0.001) or Hispanic (OR 1.75, p < 0.001) race, Medicare (OR 1.27, p < 0.001) or private (OR 1.33, p < 0.001) insurance, and urban rural-urban commuting area codes (OR 1.31, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Male patients who presented to the emergency department for acute urinary retention with benign prostatic hyperplasia were more likely to be older, of nonwhite race, have Medicare or private insurance, and live in more urban areas. These data suggest that African American and Hispanic patients may be untreated or under treated for benign prostatic hyperplasia in the outpatient setting, resulting in an increased risk of presentation to the emergency department with acute urinary retention.