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Association of Medicaid Expansion With Enrollee Employment and Student Status in Michigan.

Tipirneni R, Ayanian JZ, Patel MR, Kieffer EC, Kirch MA, Bryant C, Kullgren JT, Clark SJ, Lee S, Solway E, Chang T, Haggins AN, Luster J, Beathard E, Goold SD. Association of Medicaid Expansion With Enrollee Employment and Student Status in Michigan. JAMA Network Open. 2020 Jan 3; 3(1):e1920316.

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Importance: Medicaid community engagement requirements (work, school, job searching, or community service) are being implemented by several states for the first time, but the association of Medicaid coverage with enrollees'' employment and school attendance is unclear. Objective: To assess longitudinal changes in enrollees'' employment or student status after Michigan''s Medicaid expansion. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study included 4090 nonelderly, adult Healthy Michigan Plan enrollees from March 1, 2017, to January 31, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported employment or student status. Proportionate sampling was stratified by income and geographic region. Mixed-effects regression models with time indicators were used to assess longitudinal changes in the proportion of enrollees who were employed or students. Results: The response rate for the initial survey was 53.7% and for the follow-up survey was 83.4%. Of the 3104 respondents to the 2017 follow-up survey (mean [SD] age in 2017, 42.2 [13.0] years; 1867 [53.0%] female), 54.3% were employed or students in 2016, and this number increased to 60.0% in 2017 (percentage point change, 5.7; P? < .001). Non-Hispanic black enrollees had significantly larger gains in employment or student status compared with non-Hispanic white enrollees (percentage point change, 10.7 vs 3.5; P? = .02). Changes in employment or student status were not associated with improved health status. Conclusions and Relevance: Employment or student status increased from 2016 to 2017 among Michigan Medicaid expansion enrollees. These findings provide information about whether Medicaid coverage or community engagement requirements are best to promote the desired outcomes of employment and student status.

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