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New persistent opioid use after acute opioid prescribing in pregnancy: a nationwide analysis.

Peahl AF, Morgan DM, Dalton VK, Zivin K, Lai YL, Hu HM, Langen E, Low LK, Brummett CM, Waljee JF, Bauer ME. New persistent opioid use after acute opioid prescribing in pregnancy: a nationwide analysis. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2020 Oct 1; 223(4):566.e1-566.e13.

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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between opioid prescribing during pregnancy and new persistent opioid use in the year following delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This nationwide retrospective cohort study included patients aged 12-55 years in Optum's deidentified Clinformatics Data Mart Database who were undergoing vaginal delivery or cesarean delivery from 2008 to 2016, with continuous enrollment from 2 years before birth to 1 year postdischarge. Women were included if they were opioid naive in pregnancy (ie, did not fill an opioid prescription 2 years to 9 months before delivery) and did not undergo a procedure within the year after discharge. The exposure was filling an opioid prescription in pregnancy. The primary outcome was new persistent opioid use, defined as a pharmacy claim for = 1 opioid prescription between 4 and 90 days postdischarge and = 1 prescription between 91 and 365 days postdischarge. Clinical and demographic covariates were included. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for clinical and demographic covariates. RESULTS: Of 158,425 childbirths identified, 101,013 (63.8%) were by vaginal delivery and 57,412 (36.2%) cesarean delivery. Among all patients, 6.0% (9429) filled an opioid prescription during pregnancy. The factors associated with filling an opioid in pregnancy were having a nondelivery procedure in pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 9.60; 95% confidence interval, 8.81-10.47) and having an emergency room visit during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-2.59). Of women who received an opioid in pregnancy, 4% (379) developed new persistent opioid use. The factors most associated with new persistent opioid use were receiving an opioid prescription during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 3.45; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-3.92) and filling a peripartum opioid prescription (1 week prior to 3 days postdischarge) adjusted odds ratio, 2.28, 95% confidence interval (2.02-2.57). Though having a procedure during pregnancy was associated with increased receipt of an opioid prescription, it was also associated with reduced new persistent opioid use (adjusted odds ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.99). CONCLUSION: Women who receive an opioid prescription during pregnancy are more likely to experience new persistent opioid use. Maternity care providers must balance pain management in pregnancy with potential risks of opioids.

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