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Risk factors for pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations in long-term care facility residents: a retrospective cohort study.
Moyo P, Zullo AR, McConeghy KW, Bosco E, van Aalst R, Chit A, Gravenstein S. Risk factors for pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations in long-term care facility residents: a retrospective cohort study. BMC geriatrics. 2020 Feb 10; 20(1):47.
Older adults who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are at particularly high risk for infection, morbidity and mortality from pneumonia and influenza (PandI) compared to individuals of younger age and those living outside institutional settings. The risk factors for PandI hospitalizations that are specific to LTCFs remain poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate the incidence of PandI hospitalization and associated person- and facility-level factors among post-acute (short-stay) and long-term (long-stay) care residents residing in LTCFs from 2013 to 2015.
In this retrospective cohort study, we used Medicare administrative claims linked to Minimum Data Set and LTCF-level data to identify short-stay ( < 100?days, index? = admission date) and long-stay (100+ days, index? = day 100) residents who were followed from the index date until the first of hospitalization, LTCF discharge, Medicare disenrollment, or death. We measured incidence rates (IRs) for PandI hospitalization per 100,000 person-days, and estimated associations with baseline demographics, geriatric syndromes, clinical characteristics, and medication use using Cox regression models.
We analyzed data from 1,118,054 short-stay and 593,443 long-stay residents. The crude 30-day IRs (95% CI) of hospitalizations with PandI in the principal position were 26.0 (25.4, 26.6) and 34.5 (33.6, 35.4) among short- and long-stay residents, respectively. The variables associated with PandI varied between short and long-stay residents, and common risk factors included: advanced age (85+ years), admission from an acute hospital, select cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, impaired functional status, and receipt of antibiotics or Beers criteria medications. Facility staffing and care quality measures were important risk factors among long-stay residents but not in short-stay residents.
Short-stay residents had lower crude 30- and 90-day incidence rates of PandI hospitalizations than long-stay LTCF residents. Differences in risk factors for PandI between short- and long-stay populations suggest the importance of considering distinct profiles of post-acute and long-term care residents in infection prevention and control strategies in LTCFs. These findings can help clinicians target interventions to subgroups of LTCF residents at highest PandI risk.