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Coronavirus disease-19 and cardiovascular disease: A risk factor or a risk marker?

Liu J, Virani SS, Alam M, Denktas AE, Hamzeh I, Khalid U. Coronavirus disease-19 and cardiovascular disease: A risk factor or a risk marker? Reviews in medical virology. 2021 May 1; 31(3):e2172.

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 causes the clinical syndrome of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) which has become a global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. While the virus primarily affects the respiratory system, it also causes a wide variety of complex cardiac manifestations such as acute myopericarditis, acute coronary syndrome, congested heart failure, cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrhythmias. There are numerous proposed mechanisms of cardiac injury, including direct cellular injury, pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, myocardial oxygen-demand mismatch, and systemic inflammation causing multi-organ failure. Additionally, medications commonly used to treat COVID-19 patients have various cardiovascular side effects. We aim to provide a succinct review about the pathophysiology and cardiac manifestations of COVID-19, as well as treatment considerations and the various adaptations made to the current healthcare structure as a result of the pandemic.

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