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Clinical efficacy of direct-acting antiviral therapy for recurrent hepatitis C virus infection after liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Ismail MS, Hassan M, Khaderi SA, Yousry WA, Kamal El-Din MM, Bahaa El-Din MM, El Sayed OA, Kaseb AO, Goss JA, Kanwal F, Jalal PK. Clinical efficacy of direct-acting antiviral therapy for recurrent hepatitis C virus infection after liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. World journal of hepatology. 2020 Sep 27; 12(9):628-640.

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Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection of transplanted liver allografts is universal in patients with detectable HCV viremia at the time of transplantation. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has been adopted as the standard of care for recurrent HCV infection in the post-transplant setting. However, there are insufficient data regarding its efficacy in liver transplant (LT) recipients with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the risk of HCC recurrence after DAA therapy is unknown. AIM: To demonstrate predictors of DAA treatment failure and HCC recurrence in LT recipients. METHODS: A total of 106 LT recipients given DAAs for recurrent HCV infection from 2015 to 2019 were identified (68 with and 38 without HCC). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to estimate the multivariate odds ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals for predictors of treatment failure and HCC recurrence. RESULTS: Six patients (6%) experienced DAA therapy failure post-LT and 100 (94%) had a sustained virologic response at follow-up week 12. A high alanine transaminase level > 35 U/L at treatment week 4 was a significant predictor of treatment failure. Relapse to pre-LT DAA therapy is a predictor of post-LT HCC recurrence, = 0.04. DAA relapse post-LT was also associated with post-transplantation HCC recurrence, = 0.05. CONCLUSION: DAAs are effective and safe in the treatment of recurrent HCV infection in LT recipients with history of HCC. Relapse to pre- and post-LT DAA therapy is associated with post-transplantation HCC recurrence.





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