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Impact of Sex and Metabolic Comorbidities on COVID-19 Mortality Risk Across Age Groups: 66,646 Inpatients Across 613 U.S. Hospitals.
Goodman KE, Magder LS, Baghdadi JD, Pineles L, Levine AR, Perencevich EN, Harris AD. Impact of Sex and Metabolic Comorbidities on COVID-19 Mortality Risk Across Age Groups: 66,646 Inpatients Across 613 U.S. Hospitals. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2020 Dec 18.
The relationship between common patient characteristics, such as sex and metabolic comorbidities, and mortality from COVID-19 remains incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors may also vary by age. This study aimed to determine the association between common patient characteristics and mortality across age-groups among COVID-19 inpatients.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients discharged from hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database between April - June 2020. Inpatients were identified using COVID-19 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. A priori-defined exposures were sex and present-on-admission hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and interactions between age and these comorbidities. Controlling for additional confounders, we evaluated relationships between these variables and in-hospital mortality in a log-binomial model.
Among 66,646 (6.5%) admissions with a COVID-19 diagnosis, across 613 U.S. hospitals, 12,388 (18.6%) died in-hospital. In multivariable analysis, male sex was independently associated with 30% higher mortality risk (aRR, 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26 - 1.34). Diabetes without chronic complications was not a risk factor at any age (aRR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.06), and hypertension without chronic complications was only a risk factor in 20-39 year-olds (aRR, 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17 - 2.40). Diabetes with chronic complications, hypertension with chronic complications, and obesity were risk factors in most age-groups, with highest relative risks among 20-39 year-olds (respective aRRs 1.79, 2.33, 1.92; p-values 0.002).
Hospitalized men with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death across all ages. Hypertension, diabetes with chronic complications, and obesity demonstrated age-dependent effects, with the highest relative risks among adults aged 20-39.