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Schroeck FR, Ould Ismail AA, Perry GN, Haggstrom DA, Sanchez SL, Walker DR, Young J, Zickmund S, Zubkoff L. Determinants of Risk-Aligned Bladder Cancer Surveillance-Mixed-Methods Evaluation Using the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases Framework. JCO oncology practice. 2022 Jan 1; 18(1):e152-e162.
PURPOSE: For many patients with cancer, the frequency of surveillance after primary treatment depends on the risk for cancer recurrence or progression. Lack of risk-aligned surveillance means too many unnecessary surveillance procedures for low-risk patients and not enough for high-risk patients. Using bladder cancer as an example, we examined whether practice determinants differ between Department of Veterans Affairs sites where risk-aligned surveillance was more (risk-aligned sites) or less common (need improvement sites). METHODS: We used our prior quantitative data to identify two risk-aligned sites and four need improvement sites. We performed semistructured interviews with 40 Veterans Affairs staff guided by the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases framework that were deductively coded. We integrated quantitative data (risk-aligned site need improvement site) and qualitative data from interviews, cross-tabulating salient determinants by site type. RESULTS: There were 14 participants from risk-aligned sites and 26 participants from need improvement sites. Irrespective of site type, we found a lack of knowledge on guideline recommendations. Additional salient determinants at need improvement sites were a lack of resources ("the next available without overbooking is probably seven to eight weeks out") and an absence of routines to incorporate risk-aligned surveillance ("I have my own guidelines that I've been using for 35 years"). CONCLUSION: Knowledge, resources, and lack of routines were salient barriers to risk-aligned bladder cancer surveillance. Implementation strategies addressing knowledge and resources can likely contribute to more risk-aligned surveillance. In addition, reminders for providers to incorporate risk into their surveillance plans may improve their routines.