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Association of Urine Biomarkers of Kidney Tubule Injury and Dysfunction With Frailty Index and Cognitive Function in Persons With CKD in SPRINT.
Miller LM, Rifkin D, Lee AK, Kurella Tamura M, Pajewski NM, Weiner DE, Al-Rousan T, Shlipak M, Ix JH. Association of Urine Biomarkers of Kidney Tubule Injury and Dysfunction With Frailty Index and Cognitive Function in Persons With CKD in SPRINT. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 2021 Oct 1; 78(4):530-540.e1.
RATIONALE and OBJECTIVE:
The associations of the glomerular markers of kidney disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria, with frailty and cognition are well established. However, the relationship of kidney tubule injury and dysfunction with frailty and cognition is unknown.
Observational cross-sectional study.
SETTING and PARTICIPANTS:
2,253 participants with eGFR < 60mL/min/1.73m in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT).
Eight urine biomarkers: interleukin 18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), -microglobulin (A1M), -microglobulin (B2M), and uromodulin (Umod).
Frailty was measured using a previously validated frailty index (FI), categorized as fit (FI 0.10), less fit (0.10 < FI 0.21), and frail (FI > 0.21). Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).
Associations between kidney tubule biomarkers with categorical FI were evaluated using multinomial logistic regression with the fit group as the reference. Cognitive function was evaluated using linear regression. Models were adjusted for demographic, behavioral, and clinical variables including eGFR and urine albumin.
Three of the 8 urine biomarkers of tubule injury and dysfunction were independently associated with FI. Each 2-fold higher level of urine KIM-1, a marker of tubule injury, was associated with a 1.22 (95% CI, 1.01-1.49) greater odds of being in the frail group. MCP-1, a marker of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, was associated with a 1.30 (95% CI, 1.04-1.64) greater odds of being in the frail group, and A1M, a marker of tubule reabsorptive capacity, was associated with a 1.48 (95% CI, 1.11-1.96) greater odds of being in the frail group. These associations were independent of confounders including eGFR and urine albumin, and were stronger than those of urine albumin with FI (1.15 [95% CI, 0.99-1.34]). Higher urine B2M, another marker of tubule reabsorptive capacity, was associated with worse cognitive scores at baseline ( : -0.09 [95% CI, -0.17 to-0.01]). Urine albumin was not associated with cognitive function.
Cross-sectional design, and FI may not be generalizable in other populations.
Urine biomarkers of tubule injury, fibrosis, and proximal tubule reabsorptive capacity are variably associated with FI and worse cognition, independent of glomerular markers of kidney health. Future studies are needed to validate these results among other patient populations.