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Artificial intelligence in gastroenterology and hepatology: how to advance clinical practice while ensuring health equity.
Uche-Anya E, Anyane-Yeboa A, Berzin TM, Ghassemi M, May FP. Artificial intelligence in gastroenterology and hepatology: how to advance clinical practice while ensuring health equity. Gut. 2022 Sep 1; 71(9):1909-1915.
Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) systems are increasingly used in medicine to improve clinical decision-making and healthcare delivery. In gastroenterology and hepatology, studies have explored a myriad of opportunities for AI/ML applications which are already making the transition to bedside. Despite these advances, there is a risk that biases and health inequities can be introduced or exacerbated by these technologies. If unrecognised, these technologies could generate or worsen systematic racial, ethnic and sex disparities when deployed on a large scale. There are several mechanisms through which AI/ML could contribute to health inequities in gastroenterology and hepatology, including diagnosis of oesophageal cancer, management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), liver transplantation, colorectal cancer screening and many others. This review adapts a framework for ethical AI/ML development and application to gastroenterology and hepatology such that clinical practice is advanced while minimising bias and optimising health equity.