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Epidemiology and outcomes associated with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a retrospective cohort study.

Vivo A, Fitzpatrick MA, Suda KJ, Jones MM, Perencevich EN, Rubin MA, Ramanathan S, Wilson GM, Evans ME, Evans CT. Epidemiology and outcomes associated with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a retrospective cohort study. BMC infectious diseases. 2022 May 24; 22(1):491.

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Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) are a growing threat. The objective of this study was to describe CRAB and CRPA epidemiology and identify factors associated with mortality and length of stay (LOS) post-culture. METHODS: This was a national retrospective cohort study of Veterans with CRAB or CRPA positive cultures from 2013 to 2018, conducted at Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital. Carbapenem resistance was defined as non-susceptibility to imipenem, meropenem and/or doripenem. Multivariable cluster adjusted regression models were fit to assess the association of post-culture LOS among inpatient and long-term care (LTC) and to identify factors associated with 90-day and 365-day mortality after positive CRAB and CRPA cultures. RESULTS: CRAB and CRPA were identified in 1,048 and 8,204 unique patients respectively, with 90-day mortality rates of 30.3% and 24.5% and inpatient post-LOS of 26 and 27 days. Positive blood cultures were associated with an increased odds of 90-day mortality compared to urine cultures in patients with CRAB (OR 6.98, 95% CI 3.55-13.73) and CRPA (OR 2.82, 95% CI 2.04-3.90). In patients with CRAB and CRPA blood cultures, higher Charlson score was associated with increased odds of 90-day mortality. In CRAB and CRPA, among patients from inpatient care settings, blood cultures were associated with a decreased LOS compared to urine cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Positive blood cultures and more comorbidities were associated with higher odds for mortality in patients with CRAB and CRPA. Recognizing these factors would encourage clinicians to treat these patients in a timely manner to improve outcomes of patients infected with these organisms.





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