skip to page content
Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

Health Services Research & Development

Go to the ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR&D Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Health Care Spending on Respiratory Diseases in the United States, 1996-2016.

Duan KI, Birger M, Au DH, Spece LJ, Feemster LC, Dieleman JL. Health Care Spending on Respiratory Diseases in the United States, 1996-2016. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2023 Jan 15; 207(2):183-192.

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


Respiratory conditions account for a large proportion of health care spending in the United States. A full characterization of spending across multiple conditions and over time has not been performed. To estimate health care spending in the United States for 11 respiratory conditions from 1996 to 2016, providing detailed trends and an evaluation of factors associated with spending growth. We extracted data from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation's Disease Expenditure Project Database, producing annual estimates in spending for 38 age and sex groups, 7 types of care, and 3 payer types. We performed a decomposition analysis to estimate the change in spending associated with changes in each of five factors (population growth, population aging, disease prevalence, service usage, and service price and intensity). Total spending across all respiratory conditions in 2016 was $170.8 billion (95% confidence interval [CI], $164.2-179.2 billion), increasing by $71.7 billion (95% CI, $63.2-80.8 billion) from 1996. The respiratory conditions with the highest spending in 2016 were asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, contributing $35.5 billion (95% CI, $32.4-38.2 billion) and $34.3 billion (95% CI, $31.5-37.3 billion), respectively. Increasing service price and intensity were associated with 81.4% (95% CI, 70.3-93.0%) growth from 1996 to 2016. U.S. spending on respiratory conditions is high, particularly for chronic conditions like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our findings suggest that service price and intensity, particularly for pharmaceuticals, should be a key focus of attention for policymakers seeking to reduce health care spending growth.

Questions about the HSR&D website? Email the Web Team

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.