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The Impact of Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Supplements and Yogurt Consumption on the Risk of Colorectal Neoplasia among Adults: A Systematic Review.

Kim CE, Yoon LS, Michels KB, Tranfield W, Jacobs JP, May FP. The Impact of Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Supplements and Yogurt Consumption on the Risk of Colorectal Neoplasia among Adults: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2022 Nov 21; 14(22).

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Abstract:

Prebiotic and probiotic supplementation and yogurt consumption (a probiotic food) alter gut microbial diversity, which may influence colorectal carcinogenesis. This systematic review evaluates the existing literature on the effect of these nutritional supplements and yogurt consumption on colorectal neoplasia incidence among adults. We systematically identified ten randomized controlled trials and observational studies in adults age = 18 without baseline gastrointestinal disease. Prebiotics included inulin, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, isomaltooligosaccharides, and ß-glucans. Probiotics included bacterial strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Escherichia coli. Synbiotic supplements, a mixture of both prebiotic and probiotic supplements, and yogurt, a commonly consumed dietary source of live microbes, were also included. We defined colorectal neoplasia as colorectal adenomas, sessile serrated polyps, and colorectal cancer (CRC). Overall, findings suggest a moderate decrease in risk of adenoma and CRC for high levels of yogurt consumption compared to low or no consumption. Prebiotic supplementation was not associated with colorectal neoplasia risk. There was some evidence that probiotic supplementation may be associated with lower risk of adenomas but not with CRC incidence. Higher yogurt consumption may be associated with lower incidence of colorectal neoplasia. We found little evidence to suggest that prebiotic or probiotic supplements are associated with significant decreases in CRC occurrence.





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