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Traumatic Brain Injury and Early Onset Dementia in Post 9-11 Veterans.

Kennedy E, Panahi S, Stewart IJ, Tate DF, Wilde EA, Kenney K, Werner JK, Gill J, Diaz-Arrastia R, Amuan M, Van Cott AC, Pugh MJ. Traumatic Brain Injury and Early Onset Dementia in Post 9-11 Veterans. Brain injury. 2022 Apr 16; 36(5):620-627.

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OBJECTIVES: To assess traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related risks factors for early-onset dementia (EOD). BACKGROUND: Younger Post-9/11 Veterans may be at elevated risk for EOD due to high rates of TBI in early/mid adulthood. Few studies have explored the longitudinal relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the emergence of EOD subtypes. METHODS: This matched case-control study used data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify Veterans with EOD. To address the low positive predictive value (PPV  =  0.27) of dementia algorithms in VHA records, primary outcomes were Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Logistic regression identified conditions associated with dementia subtypes. RESULTS: The EOD cohort included Veterans with AD (n  =  689) and FTD (n  =  284). There were no significant demographic differences between the EOD cohort and their matched controls. After adjustment, EOD was significantly associated with history of TBI (OR: 3.05, 2.42-3.83), epilepsy (OR: 4.8, 3.3-6.97), other neurological conditions (OR: 2.0, 1.35-2.97), depression (OR: 1.35, 1.12-1.63) and cardiac disease (OR: 1.36, 1.1-1.67). CONCLUSION: Post-9/11 Veterans have higher odds of EOD following TBI. A sensitivity analysis across TBI severity confirmed this trend, indicating that the odds for both AD and FTD increased after more severe TBIs.

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