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Association between Gentrification and Health and Healthcare Utilization.
Bhavsar NA, Yang LZ, Phelan M, Shepherd-Banigan M, Goldstein BA, Peskoe S, Palta P, Hirsch JA, Mitchell NS, Hirsch AG, Lunyera J, Mohottige D, Diamantidis CJ, Maciejewski ML, Boulware LE. Association between Gentrification and Health and Healthcare Utilization. Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2022 Dec 1; 99(6):984-997.
There is tremendous interest in understanding how neighborhoods impact health by linking extant social and environmental drivers of health (SDOH) data with electronic health record (EHR) data. Studies quantifying such associations often use static neighborhood measures. Little research examines the impact of gentrification-a measure of neighborhood change-on the health of long-term neighborhood residents using EHR data, which may have a more generalizable population than traditional approaches. We quantified associations between gentrification and health and healthcare utilization by linking longitudinal socioeconomic data from the American Community Survey with EHR data across two health systems accessed by long-term residents of Durham County, NC, from 2007 to 2017. Census block group-level neighborhoods were eligible to be gentrified if they had low socioeconomic status relative to the county average. Gentrification was defined using socioeconomic data from 2006 to 2010 and 2011-2015, with the Steinmetz-Wood definition. Multivariable logistic and Poisson regression models estimated associations between gentrification and development of health indicators (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, asthma, depression) or healthcare encounters (emergency department [ED], inpatient, or outpatient). Sensitivity analyses examined two alternative gentrification measures. Of the 99 block groups within the city of Durham, 28 were eligible (N? = 10,807; median age? = 42; 83% Black; 55% female) and 5 gentrified. Individuals in gentrifying neighborhoods had lower odds of obesity (odds ratio [OR]? = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.99), higher odds of an ED encounter (OR? = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01-1.20), and lower risk for outpatient encounters (incidence rate ratio? = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) compared with non-gentrifying neighborhoods. The association between gentrification and health and healthcare utilization was sensitive to gentrification definition.