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Examining Satisfaction and Quality in Home- and Community-Based Service Programs in the United States: A Scoping Review.

Bucy TI, Mulcahy JF, Shippee TP, Fashaw-Walters S, Dahal R, Duan Y, Jutkowitz E. Examining Satisfaction and Quality in Home- and Community-Based Service Programs in the United States: A Scoping Review. The Gerontologist. 2023 Oct 17; 63(9):1437-1455.

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Long-term services and supports in the United States are increasingly reliant on home- and community-based services (HCBS). Yet, little is known about the quality of HCBS. We conducted a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature to summarize HCBS consumer, provider, and stakeholder satisfaction with services as a means of assessing quality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, OVID-MEDLINE, and SCOPUS to identify articles published from 2000 to 2021 that reported on studies describing a U.S.-based study population. Articles were grouped into 3 categories: drivers of positive consumer satisfaction, drivers of negative consumer satisfaction, and provider and stakeholder perspectives on satisfaction. RESULTS: Our final sample included 27 articles. Positive perceptions of quality and reported satisfaction with services were driven by consistent, reliable, and respectful care providers, and adoption of person-centered models of service delivery. Mistreatment of consumers, staff turnover, training, service interruptions, and unmet functional needs were drivers of negative consumer perceptions of quality. Support for caregivers and emphasis on training were identified by providers and stakeholders as important for providing satisfactory services. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Multiple data challenges limit the ability to systematically evaluate HCBS program quality; however, studies examining single programs found that HCBS consumers are more satisfied and associate higher quality with easy-to-navigate programs and professional staff. Efforts to expand HCBS should also include requirements to systematically evaluate quality outcomes.

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