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Association of Race and Ethnicity With Oral Anticoagulation and Associated Outcomes in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Findings From the Get With The Guidelines-Atrial Fibrillation Registry.
Essien UR, Chiswell K, Kaltenbach LA, Wang TY, Fonarow GC, Thomas KL, Turakhia MP, Benjamin EJ, Rodriguez F, Fang MC, Magnani JW, Yancy CW, Piccini JP. Association of Race and Ethnicity With Oral Anticoagulation and Associated Outcomes in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Findings From the Get With The Guidelines-Atrial Fibrillation Registry. JAMA cardiology. 2022 Dec 1; 7(12):1207-1217.
Oral anticoagulation (OAC) is underprescribed in underrepresented racial and ethnic group individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF). Little is known of how differential OAC prescribing relates to inequities in AF outcomes.
To compare OAC use at discharge and AF-related outcomes by race and ethnicity in the Get With The Guidelines-Atrial Fibrillation (GWTG-AFIB) registry.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
This retrospective cohort analysis used data from the GWTG-AFIB registry, a national quality improvement initiative for hospitalized patients with AF. All registry patients hospitalized with AF from 2014 to 2020 were included in the study. Data were analyzed from November 2021 to July 2022.
Self-reported race and ethnicity assessed in GWTG-AFIB registry.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
The primary outcome was prescription of direct-acting OAC (DOAC) or warfarin at discharge. Secondary outcomes included cumulative 1-year incidence of ischemic stroke, major bleeding, and mortality postdischarge. Outcomes adjusted for patient demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic characteristics as well as hospital factors.
Among 69 553 patients hospitalized with AF from 159 sites between 2014 and 2020, 863 (1.2%) were Asian, 5062 (7.3%) were Black, 4058 (5.8%) were Hispanic, and 59 570 (85.6%) were White. Overall, 34 113 (49.1%) were women; the median (IQR) age was 72 (63-80) years, and the median (IQR) CHA2DS2-VASc score (calculated as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years and older, diabetes, stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, and sex category) was 4 (2-5). At discharge, 56 385 patients (81.1%) were prescribed OAC therapy, including 41 760 (74.1%) receiving DOAC. OAC prescription at discharge was lowest in Hispanic patients (3010 [74.2%]), followed by Black patients (3935 [77.7%]) Asian patients (691 [80.1%]), and White patients (48 749 [81.8%]). Black patients were less likely than White patients to be discharged while taking any anticoagulant (adjusted odds ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68-0.84) and DOACs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.65-0.82). In 16 307 individuals with 1-year follow up data, bleeding risks (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.53-2.83), stroke risks (aHR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.34-3.20), and mortality risks (aHR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.47) were higher in Black patients than White patients. Hispanic patients had higher stroke risk (aHR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.38-2.95) than White patients.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
In a national registry of hospitalized patients with AF, compared with White patients, Black patients were less likely to be discharged while taking anticoagulant therapy and DOACs in particular. Black and Hispanic patients had higher risk of stroke compared with White patients; Black patients had a higher risk of bleeding and mortality. There is an urgent need for interventions to achieve pharmacoequity in guideline-directed AF management to improve overall outcomes.