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Age-Related Factors Associated With The Risk of Hip Fracture.
Buzkova P, Cauley JA, Fink HA, Robbins JA, Mukamal KJ, Barzilay JI. Age-Related Factors Associated With The Risk of Hip Fracture. Endocrine Practice : Official Journal of The American College of Endocrinology and The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. 2023 Jun 1; 29(6):478-483.
Advancing age is a powerful risk factor for hip fractures. The biological mechanisms through which aging impacts the risk of hip fractures have not been well studied.
Biological factors associated with "advancing age" that help to explain how aging is associated with the risk of hip fractures are reviewed. The findings are based on analyses of the Cardiovascular Health Study, an ongoing observational study of adults aged = 65 years with 25 years of follow-up.
The following 5 age-related factors were found to be significantly associated with the risk of hip fractures: (1) microvascular disease of the kidneys (albuminuria and/or elevated urine-albumin-to-creatinine ratio) and brain (abnormal white matter disease on brain magnetic resonance imaging); (2) increased serum levels of carboxymethyl-lysine, an advanced glycation end product that reflects glycation and oxidative stress; (3) reduced parasympathetic tone, as derived from 24-hour Holter monitoring; (4) carotid artery atherosclerosis in the absence of clinical cardiovascular disease; and (5) increased transfatty acid levels in the blood. Each of these factors was associated with a 10% to 25% increased risk of fractures. These associations were independent of traditional risk factors for hip fractures.
Several factors associated with older age help to explain how "aging" may be associated with the risk of hip fractures. These same factors may also explain the high risk of mortality following hip fractures.