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Dapagliflozin in Black and White Patients With Heart Failure Across the Ejection Fraction Spectrum.

Butt JH, Docherty KF, Claggett BL, Desai AS, Fang JC, Petersson M, Langkilde AM, de Boer RA, Cabrera Honorio JW, Hernandez AF, Inzucchi SE, Kosiborod MN, Køber L, Lam CSP, Martinez FA, Ponikowski P, Sabatine MS, Vardeny O, O'Meara E, Saraiva JFK, Shah SJ, Vaduganathan M, Jhund PS, Solomon SD, McMurray JJV. Dapagliflozin in Black and White Patients With Heart Failure Across the Ejection Fraction Spectrum. JACC. Heart failure. 2023 Apr 1; 11(4):375-388.

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BACKGROUND: Black people have a higher incidence and prevalence of heart failure (HF) than White people, and once HF has developed, they may have worse outcomes. There is also evidence that the response to several pharmacologic therapies may differ between Black and White patients. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to examine the outcomes and response to treatment with dapagliflozin according to Black or White race in a pooled analysis of 2 trials comparing dapagliflozin to placebo in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (DAPA-HF [Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure]) and heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction/heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (DELIVER [Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure]). METHODS: Because most self-identified Black patients were enrolled in the Americas, the comparator group was White patients randomized in the same regions. The primary outcome was the composite of worsening HF or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Of the 3,526 patients randomized in the Americas, 2,626 (74.5%) identified as White and 381 (10.8%) as Black. The primary outcome occurred at a rate of 16.8 (95% CI: 13.8-20.4) in Black patients compared with 11.6 (95% CI: 10.6-12.7) per 100 person-years in White patients (adjusted HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01-1.59). Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin decreased the risk of the primary endpoint to the same extent in Black (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.47-1.02) and White patients (HR: 0.73 [95% CI: 0.61-0.88]; P  =  0.73). The number of patients needed to treat with dapagliflozin to prevent one event over the median follow-up was 17 in White and 12 in Black patients. The beneficial effects and favorable safety profile of dapagliflozin were consistent across the range of left ventricular ejection fractions in both Black and White patients. CONCLUSIONS: The relative benefits of dapagliflozin were consistent in Black and White patients across the range of left ventricular ejection fraction, with greater absolute benefits in Black patients. (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure [DAPA-HF]; NCT03036124; Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure [DELIVER]; NCT03619213).

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