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Quantifying implementation strategy and dissemination channel preferences and experiences for pain management in primary care: a novel implementer-reported outcome.

Ashcraft LE, Moon DJ, Merlin JS, Eack SM, Rogal SS. Quantifying implementation strategy and dissemination channel preferences and experiences for pain management in primary care: a novel implementer-reported outcome. Implementation science communications. 2022 Dec 9; 3(1):128.

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BACKGROUND: Precision implementation science requires methods to evaluate and select implementation strategies. This study developed and evaluated a novel measure of concordance between current and preferred dissemination channels (DC) and implementation strategies (IS) to guide efforts to improve the adoption of evidence-based management strategies for chronic pain. METHODS: We conducted a one-time electronic survey of Pennsylvania primary care practitioners (PCPs) about current vs. preferred chronic pain management DC and IS use. Survey items were selected based on preliminary data, the Model for Dissemination of Research, and the Evidence-Based Recommendations for Implementing Change taxonomy of implementation strategies. We used Cohen''s kappa (?) to assess the agreement between participant-level current and preferred DC/IS. We calculated % preferred minus % experienced for each DC/IS and assessed the equality of proportions to determine whether this difference significantly departed from zero. We categorized DC and IS based on the degree of use and preference, to evaluate alignment. RESULTS: The current sample included 101 Pennsylvania PCPs primarily in urban (94.06%), non-academic (90.10%) settings who self-identified as mostly female (66.34%) and white (85.15%). The greatest difference between preferred and experienced DCs, or "need," was identified by participants as workshops, clinical experts, seminars, and researchers. Similarly, participants reported the greatest IS gaps as multidisciplinary chronic pain workgroups, targeted support for clinicians, and a chronic pain clinical champion. Participating PCPs had moderate DC concordance (kappa = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.38-0.52) and low IS concordance (kappa = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.13-0.23). DC and IS concordance were both greater than that expected by chance. We further identified well-aligned DC and IS, including professional organizations, briefs, and guidelines. CONCLUSION: We identified a novel implementer-reported outcome of dissemination channel and implementation strategy concordance that allows implementation scientists to quantify the magnitude of the gap between the current and preferred experience of implementers. This quantitative measure can help with the selection and evaluation of dissemination channels and implementation strategies. Future research should leverage this measure to understand the degree to which preference concordance influences clinical outcomes and performance.

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