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Integration and evaluation of chest X-ray artificial intelligence in clinical practice.

Wong KP, Homer SY, Wei SH, Yaghmai N, Estrada Paz OA, Young TJ, Buhr RG, Barjaktarevic I, Shrestha L, Daly M, Goldin J, Enzmann DR, Brown MS. Integration and evaluation of chest X-ray artificial intelligence in clinical practice. Journal of medical imaging (Bellingham, Wash.). 2023 Sep 1; 10(5):051805.

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PURPOSE: To integrate and evaluate an artificial intelligence (AI) system that assists in checking endotracheal tube (ETT) placement on chest x-rays (CXRs) in clinical practice. APPROACH: In clinical use over 17 months, 214 CXR images were ordered to check ETT placement with AI assistance by intensive care unit (ICU) physicians. The system was built on the SimpleMind Cognitive AI platform and integrated into a clinical workflow. It automatically identified the ETT and checked its placement relative to the trachea and carina. The ETT overlay and misplacement alert messages generated by the AI system were compared with radiology reports as the reference. A survey study was also conducted to evaluate usefulness of the AI system in clinical practice. RESULTS: The alert messages indicating that either the ETT was misplaced or not detected had a positive predictive value of 42% (21/50) and negative predictive value of 98% (161/164) based on the radiology reports. In the survey, radiologist and ICU physician users indicated that they agreed with the AI outputs and that they were useful. CONCLUSIONS: The AI system performance in real-world clinical use was comparable to that seen in previous experiments. Based on this and physician survey results, the system can be deployed more widely at our institution, using insights gained from this evaluation to make further algorithm improvements and quality assurance of the AI system.

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