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Changes in Lung Volumes with Spirometric Disease Progression in COPD.

Arjomandi M, Zeng S, Chen J, Bhatt SP, Abtin F, Barjaktarevic I, Barr RG, Bleecker ER, Buhr RG, Criner GJ, Comellas AP, Couper DJ, Curtis JL, Dransfield MT, Fortis S, Han MK, Hansel NN, Hoffman EA, Hokanson JE, Kaner RJ, Kanner RE, Krishnan JA, Labaki WW, Lynch DA, Ortega VE, Peters SP, Woodruff PG, Cooper CB, Bowler RP, Paine R, Rennard SI, Tashkin DP, and the COPDGene and SPIROMICS Investigators. Changes in Lung Volumes with Spirometric Disease Progression in COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (Miami, Fla.). 2023 Jul 26; 10(3):270-285.

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BACKGROUND: Abnormal lung volumes representing air trapping identify the subset of smokers with preserved spirometry who develop spirometric chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and adverse outcomes. However, how lung volumes evolve in early COPD as airflow obstruction develops remains unclear. METHODS: To establish how lung volumes change with the development of spirometric COPD, we examined lung volumes from the pulmonary function data (seated posture) available in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs electronic health records (n = 71,356) and lung volumes measured by computed tomography (supine posture) available from the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene) study (n = 7969) and the SubPopulations and InterMediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) (n = 2552) cohorts, and studied their cross-sectional distributions and longitudinal changes across the airflow obstruction spectrum. Patients with preserved ratio-impaired spirometry (PRISm) were excluded from this analysis. RESULTS: Lung volumes from all 3 cohorts showed similar patterns of distributions and longitudinal changes with worsening airflow obstruction. The distributions for total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), and inspiratory capacity (IC) and their patterns of change were nonlinear and included different phases. When stratified by airflow obstruction using Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages, patients with GOLD 1 (mild) COPD had larger lung volumes (TLC, VC, IC) compared to patients with GOLD 0 (smokers with preserved spirometry) or GOLD 2 (moderate) disease. In longitudinal follow-up of baseline GOLD 0 patients who progressed to spirometric COPD, those with an initially higher TLC and VC developed mild obstruction (GOLD 1) while those with an initially lower TLC and VC developed moderate obstruction (GOLD 2). CONCLUSIONS: In COPD, TLC, and VC have biphasic distributions, change in nonlinear fashions as obstruction worsens, and could differentiate those GOLD 0 patients at risk for more rapid spirometric disease progression.

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