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Iodine-Induced Hyperthyroidism and Long-term Risks of Incident Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter.

Inoue K, Guo R, Lee ML, Ebrahimi R, Neverova NV, Currier JW, Bashir MT, Leung AM. Iodine-Induced Hyperthyroidism and Long-term Risks of Incident Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2023 Sep 18; 108(10):e956-e962.

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CONTEXT: Although iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is a potential consequence of iodinated radiologic contrast administration, its association with long-term cardiovascular outcomes has not been previously studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between hyperthyroidism observed after iodine contrast administration and incident atrial fibrillation/flutter. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (1998-2021) of patients age = 18 years with a normal baseline serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, subsequent TSH < 1 year, and receipt of iodine contrast < 60 days before the subsequent TSH. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to ascertain the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI of incident atrial fibrillation/flutter following iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, compared with iodine-induced euthyroidism. RESULTS: Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 2500 (5.6%) of 44 607 Veterans (mean ± SD age, 60.9 ± 14.1 years; 88% men) and atrial fibrillation/flutter in 10.4% over a median follow-up of 3.7 years (interquartile range 1.9-7.4). Adjusted for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, iodine-induced hyperthyroidism was associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation/flutter compared with those who remained euthyroid after iodine exposure (adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.33). Females were at greater risk for incident atrial fibrillation/flutter than males (females, HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.12-2.92; males, HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03-1.30; P for interaction = .04). CONCLUSION: Hyperthyroidism following a high iodine load was associated with an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation/flutter, particularly among females. The observed sex-based differences should be confirmed in a more sex-diverse study sample, and the cost-benefit analysis of long-term monitoring for cardiac arrhythmias following iodine-induced hyperthyroidism should be evaluated.

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