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Genome-wide association study identifies four pan-ancestry loci for suicidal ideation in the Million Veteran Program.
Ashley-Koch AE, Kimbrel NA, Qin XJ, Lindquist JH, Garrett ME, Dennis MF, Hair LP, Huffman JE, Jacobson DA, Madduri RK, Coon H, Docherty AR, Kang J, Mullins N, Ruderfer DM, VA Million Veteran Program (MVP), MVP Suicide Exemplar Workgroup, International Suicide Genetics Consortium, Harvey PD, McMahon BH, Oslin DW, Hauser ER, Hauser MA, Beckham JC. Genome-wide association study identifies four pan-ancestry loci for suicidal ideation in the Million Veteran Program. PLoS genetics. 2023 Mar 1; 19(3):e1010623.
Suicidal ideation (SI) often precedes and predicts suicide attempt and death, is the most common suicidal phenotype and is over-represented in veterans. The genetic architecture of SI in the absence of suicide attempt (SA) is unknown, yet believed to have distinct and overlapping risk with other suicidal behaviors. We performed the first GWAS of SI without SA in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), identifying 99,814 SI cases from electronic health records without a history of SA or suicide death (SD) and 512,567 controls without SI, SA or SD. GWAS was performed separately in the four largest ancestry groups, controlling for sex, age and genetic substructure. Ancestry-specific results were combined via meta-analysis to identify pan-ancestry loci. Four genome-wide significant (GWS) loci were identified in the pan-ancestry meta-analysis with loci on chromosomes 6 and 9 associated with suicide attempt in an independent sample. Pan-ancestry gene-based analysis identified GWS associations with DRD2, DCC, FBXL19, BCL7C, CTF1, ANNK1, and EXD3. Gene-set analysis implicated synaptic and startle response pathways (q''s < 0.05). European ancestry (EA) analysis identified GWS loci on chromosomes 6 and 9, as well as GWS gene associations in EXD3, DRD2, and DCC. No other ancestry-specific GWS results were identified, underscoring the need to increase representation of diverse individuals. The genetic correlation of SI and SA within MVP was high (rG = 0.87; p = 1.09e-50), as well as with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; rG = 0.78; p = 1.98e-95) and major depressive disorder (MDD; rG = 0.78; p = 8.33e-83). Conditional analysis on PTSD and MDD attenuated most pan-ancestry and EA GWS signals for SI without SA to nominal significance, with the exception of EXD3 which remained GWS. Our novel findings support a polygenic and complex architecture for SI without SA which is largely shared with SA and overlaps with psychiatric conditions frequently comorbid with suicidal behaviors.