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Racial Disparity in Outcomes Among Prostate Cancer Patients in the Post-Affordable Care Act Period.
Chhatre S, Malkowicz SB, Gallo JJ, Jayadevappa R. Racial Disparity in Outcomes Among Prostate Cancer Patients in the Post-Affordable Care Act Period. Urology practice. 2023 Mar 1; 10(2):123-129.
Our objective was to assess whether Medicaid expansion is associated with reduced racial disparity in quality of care measured as 30-day mortality, 90-day mortality, and 30-day readmission in prostate cancer patients receiving surgery.
We used the National Cancer Database to extract a cohort of African American and White men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2015 and surgically treated. We used 2004-2009 data to observe preexisting racial disparity in outcomes. We used 2010-2015 data to assess racial disparity in outcomes and the interaction of race and Medicaid expansion status.
Between 2004 and 2009, 179,762 men met our criteria. In this period, African American patients reported higher hazard of 30- and 90-day mortality and higher odds of 30-day readmission compared to White patients. Between 2010 and 2015, 174,985 men met our criteria. Of these 84% were White and 16% were African American. Main effects models showed that compared to White men, African American men had higher odds of 30-day mortality (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.46, 2.67), 90-day mortality (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.77), and 30-day readmission (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.19, 1.38).The interactions between race and Medicaid expansion were not significant ( = .1306, .9499, and .5080, respectively).
Improved access to care via Medicaid expansion may not translate into reduced racial disparity in quality-of-care outcomes in prostate cancer patients treated surgically. System-level factors such as availability of and referrals to care, and complex socioeconomic structure may also play a role in improving quality of care and reducing disparities.