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Evaluation of Out-of-Pocket Costs and Treatment Intensification With an SGLT2 Inhibitor or GLP-1 RA in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease.
Luo J, Feldman R, Callaway Kim K, Rothenberger S, Korytkowski M, Hernandez I, Gellad WF. Evaluation of Out-of-Pocket Costs and Treatment Intensification With an SGLT2 Inhibitor or GLP-1 RA in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. JAMA Network Open. 2023 Jun 1; 6(6):e2317886.
The latest guidelines continue to recommend sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and established cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite this, overall use of these 2 drug classes has been suboptimal.
To assess the association of high out-of-pocket (OOP) costs and the initiation of an SGLT2 inhibitor or GLP-1 RA among adults with T2D and established CVD who are treated with metformin-treated.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
This retrospective cohort study used 2017 to 2021 data from the Optum deidentified Clinformatics Data Mart Database. Each individual in the cohort was categorized into quartiles of OOP costs for a 1-month supply of SGLT2 inhibitor and GLP-1 RA based on their health plan assignment. Data were analyzed from April 2021 to October 2022.
OOP cost for SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 RA.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
The primary outcome was treatment intensification, defined as a new dispensing (ie, initiation) of either an SGLT2 inhibitor or GLP-1 RA, among patients with T2D previously treated with metformin monotherapy. For each drug class separately, Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for demographic, clinical, plan, clinician, and laboratory characteristics to estimate the hazard ratios of treatment intensification comparing the highest vs the lowest quartile of OOP costs.
Our cohort included 80?807 adult patients (mean [SD] age, 72 [9.5] years, 45 129 [55.8%] male; 71?128 [88%] were insured with Medicare Advantage) with T2D and established CVD on metformin monotherapy. Patients were followed for a median (IQR) of 1080 days (528 to 1337). The mean (SD) of OOP costs in the highest vs lowest quartile was $118  vs $25  for GLP-1 RA, and $91  vs $23  for SGLT2 inhibitors. Compared with patients in plans with the lowest quartile (Q1) of OOP costs, patients in plans with the highest quartile (Q4) of costs were less likely to initiate a GLP-1 RA (adjusted HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78 to 0.97]) or an SGLT2 inhibitor (adjusted HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.73 to 0.88]). The median (IQR) number of days to initiating a GLP-1 RA was 481 (207-820) days in Q1 and 556 (237-917) days in Q4 of OOP costs and 520 (193-876) days in Q1 vs 685 (309-1017) days in Q4 for SGLT2 inhibitors.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
In this cohort study of more than 80?000 older adults with T2D and established CVD covered by Medicare Advantage and commercial plans, those in the highest quartile of OOP cost were 13% and 20% less likely to initiate a GLP-1 RA or SGLT2 inhibitor, respectively, when compared with those in the lowest quartile of OOP costs.