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Implementation of a Prevention Bundle to Decrease Rates of Staphylococcus aureus Surgical Site Infection at 11 Veterans Affairs Hospitals.

Suzuki H, Perencevich EN, Hockett Sherlock S, Clore GS, O'Shea AMJ, Forrest GN, Pfeiffer CD, Safdar N, Crnich C, Gupta K, Strymish J, Lira GB, Bradley S, Cadena-Zuluaga J, Rubin M, Bittner M, Morgan D, DeVries A, Miell K, Alexander B, Schweizer ML. Implementation of a Prevention Bundle to Decrease Rates of Staphylococcus aureus Surgical Site Infection at 11 Veterans Affairs Hospitals. JAMA Network Open. 2023 Jul 3; 6(7):e2324516.

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IMPORTANCE: While current evidence has demonstrated a surgical site infection (SSI) prevention bundle consisting of preoperative Staphylococcus aureus screening, nasal and skin decolonization, and use of appropriate perioperative antibiotic based on screening results can decrease rates of SSI caused by S aureus, it is well known that interventions may need to be modified to address facility-level factors. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between implementation of an SSI prevention bundle allowing for facility discretion regarding specific component interventions and S aureus deep incisional or organ space SSI rates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This quality improvement study was conducted among all patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, cardiac valve replacement, or total joint arthroplasty (TJA) at 11 Veterans Administration hospitals. Implementation of the bundle was on a rolling basis with the earliest implementation occurring in April 2012 and the latest implementation occurring in July 2017. Data were collected from January 2007 to March 2018 and analyzed from October 2020 to June 2023. INTERVENTIONS: Nasal screening for S aureus; nasal decolonization of S aureus carriers; chlorhexidine bathing; and appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis according to S aureus carrier status. Facility discretion regarding how to implement the bundle components was allowed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was deep incisional or organ space SSI caused by S aureus. Multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equation (GEE) and interrupted time-series (ITS) models were used to compare SSI rates between preintervention and postintervention periods. RESULTS: Among 6696 cardiac surgical procedures and 16 309 TJAs, 95 S aureus deep incisional or organ space SSIs were detected (25 after cardiac operations and 70 after TJAs). While the GEE model suggested a significant association between the intervention and decreased SSI rates after TJAs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98), there was not a significant association when an ITS model was used (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.32-2.39). No significant associations after cardiac operations were found. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Although this quality improvement study suggests an association between implementation of an SSI prevention bundle and decreased S aureus deep incisional or organ space SSI rates after TJAs, it was underpowered to see a significant difference when accounting for changes over time.

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