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Management of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Urinary Tract Infections in Patients With Neurogenic Bladder and Factors Associated With Inappropriate Diagnosis and Treatment.

Fitzpatrick MA, Wirth M, Burns SP, Suda KJ, Weaver FM, Collins E, Safdar N, Evans CT. Management of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Urinary Tract Infections in Patients With Neurogenic Bladder and Factors Associated With Inappropriate Diagnosis and Treatment. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2024 Jan 1; 105(1):112-119.

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Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Inappropriate diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) are leading causes of antibiotic overuse but have not been well-studied in patients with risks for complicated UTI such as neurogenic bladder (NB). Our aim was to describe ASB and UTI management in patients with NB and assess factors associated with inappropriate management. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Four Department of Veteran''s Affairs (VA) medical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with NB due to spinal cord injury/disorder (SCI/D), multiple sclerosis (MS), or Parkinson disease (PD) and encounters with an ASB or UTI diagnosis between 2017 and 2018. Clinical and encounter data were extracted from the VA Corporate Data Warehouse and medical record reviews for a stratified sample of 300 encounters from N = 291 patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of appropriate and inappropriate ASB and UTI diagnosis and treatment was summarized. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed factors associated with inappropriate management. RESULTS: N = 200 UTI and N = 100 ASB encounters were included for the 291 unique patients (SCI/D, 39.9%; MS, 36.4%; PD, 23.7%). Most patients were men (83.3%), > 65 years (62%), and used indwelling or intermittent catheterization (68.3%). Nearly all ASB encounters had appropriate diagnosis (98%). 70 (35%) UTI encounters had inappropriate diagnosis, including 55 (27.5%) with true ASB, all with inappropriate treatment. Among the remaining 145 UTI encounters, 54 (27%) had inappropriate treatment. Peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and cerebrovascular disease were associated with increased odds of inappropriate management; indwelling catheter (aOR 0.35, P = .01) and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation provider (aOR 0.29, P < .01) were associated with decreased odds. CONCLUSION: Up to half of UTI encounters for patients with NB had inappropriate management, largely due to inappropriate UTI diagnosis in patients with true ASB. Interventions to improve ASB and UTI management in patients with NB should target complex patients with comorbidities being seen by non-rehabilitation providers.





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