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Deep sequential neural network models improve stratification of suicide attempt risk among US veterans.

Martinez C, Levin D, Jones J, Finley PD, McMahon B, Dhaubhadel S, Cohn J, Million Veteran Program, MVP Suicide Exemplar Workgroup, Oslin DW, Kimbrel NA, Beckham JC. Deep sequential neural network models improve stratification of suicide attempt risk among US veterans. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA. 2023 Sep 28.

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OBJECTIVE: To apply deep neural networks (DNNs) to longitudinal EHR data in order to predict suicide attempt risk among veterans. Local explainability techniques were used to provide explanations for each prediction with the goal of ultimately improving outreach and intervention efforts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DNNs fused demographic information with diagnostic, prescription, and procedure codes. Models were trained and tested on EHR data of approximately 500 000 US veterans: all veterans with recorded suicide attempts from April 1, 2005, through January 1, 2016, each paired with 5 veterans of the same age who did not attempt suicide. Shapley Additive Explanation (SHAP) values were calculated to provide explanations of DNN predictions. RESULTS: The DNNs outperformed logistic and linear regression models in predicting suicide attempts. After adjusting for the sampling technique, the convolutional neural network (CNN) model achieved a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.54 for suicide attempts within 12 months by veterans in the top 0.1% risk tier. Explainability methods identified meaningful subgroups of high-risk veterans as well as key determinants of suicide attempt risk at both the group and individual level. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The deep learning methods employed in the present study have the potential to significantly enhance existing suicide risk models for veterans. These methods can also provide important clues to explore the relative value of long-term and short-term intervention strategies. Furthermore, the explainability methods utilized here could also be used to communicate to clinicians the key features which increase specific veterans'' risk for attempting suicide.

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