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Contracting, prompting, and reinforcing substance use disorder continuing care: a randomized clinical trial.

Lash SJ, Stephens RS, Burden JL, Grambow SC, Demarce JM, Jones ME, Lozano BE, Jeffreys AS, Fearer SA, Horner RD. Contracting, prompting, and reinforcing substance use disorder continuing care: a randomized clinical trial. Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors. 2007 Sep 1; 21(3):387-97.

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Although continuing care is strongly related to positive treatment outcomes for substance use disorder (SUD), participation rates are low and few effective interventions are available. In a randomized clinical trial with 150 participants (97% men), 75 graduates of a residential Veterans Affairs Medical Center SUD program who received an aftercare contract, attendance prompts, and reinforcers (CPR) were compared to 75 graduates who received standard treatment (STX). Among CPR participants, 55% completed at least 3 months of aftercare, compared to 36% in STX. Similarly, CPR participants remained in treatment longer than those in STX (5.5 vs. 4.4 months). Additionally, CPR participants were more likely to be abstinent compared to STX (57% vs. 37%) after 1 year. The CPR intervention offers a practical means to improve adherence among individuals in SUD treatment.

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