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Predictors of changes in alcohol-related self-efficacy over 16 years
McKellar J, Ilgen M, Moos BS, Moos R. Predictors of changes in alcohol-related self-efficacy over 16 years. Journal of substance abuse treatment. 2008 Sep 1; 35(2):148-55.
Self-efficacy is a robust predictor of short- and long-term remission after treatment. This study examined the predictors of self-efficacy in the year after treatment and 15 years later. A sample of 420 individuals with alcohol use disorders was assessed five times over the course of 16 years. Predictors of self-efficacy at 1 year included improvement from baseline to 1 year in heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, depression, impulsivity, avoidance coping, social support from friends, and longer duration of participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Female gender, more education, less change in substance use problems, and impulsivity during the first year predicted improvement in self-efficacy over 16 years. Clinicians should focus on keeping patients engaged in AA, addressing depressive symptoms, improving patient's coping, and enhancing social support during the first year and reduce the risk of relapse by monitoring individuals whose alcohol problems and impulsivity improve unusually quickly.