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Depression and incident diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective cohort study.
Williams LH, Rutter CM, Katon WJ, Reiber GE, Ciechanowski P, Heckbert SR, Lin EH, Ludman EJ, Oliver MM, Young BA, Von Korff M. Depression and incident diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective cohort study. The American journal of medicine. 2010 Aug 1; 123(8):748-754.e3.
Major depression by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 is associated with a 2-fold higher risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Future studies of this association should include better measures of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease, which are possible confounders or mediators.