Talk to the Veterans Crisis Line now
U.S. flag
An official website of the United States government

Health Services Research & Development

Go to the ORD website
Go to the QUERI website

HSR&D Citation Abstract

Search | Search by Center | Search by Source | Keywords in Title

Associations of housing status with substance abuse treatment and service use outcomes among veterans.

Buchholz JR, Malte CA, Calsyn DA, Baer JS, Nichol P, Kivlahan DR, Caldeiro RM, Saxon AJ. Associations of housing status with substance abuse treatment and service use outcomes among veterans. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.). 2010 Jul 1; 61(7):698-706.

Dimensions for VA is a web-based tool available to VA staff that enables detailed searches of published research and research projects.

If you have VA-Intranet access, click here for more information

VA staff not currently on the VA network can access Dimensions by registering for an account using their VA email address.
   Search Dimensions for VA for this citation
* Don't have VA-internal network access or a VA email address? Try searching the free-to-the-public version of Dimensions


OBJECTIVE: This secondary analysis evaluated the prevalence and stability of homelessness over one year among veterans entering substance abuse treatment and explored associations among housing status, treatment outcomes, and Veterans Affairs (VA) service utilization. METHODS: Participants in a trial of on-site primary care for veterans entering substance abuse treatment (N = 622) were placed in four groups based on housing status: housed at baseline and final follow-up (41%), homeless at baseline and final follow-up (27%), housed at baseline but homeless at final follow-up (8%), and homeless at baseline but housed at final follow-up (24%). Groups were compared on treatment retention, changes in Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite scores, and VA service utilization and costs. RESULTS: Treatment retention and changes in ASI alcohol composites did not differ between groups. Compared with scores in the consistently housed group, the ASI drug composites improved less over time in the consistently homeless group (p = .031) and the ASI psychiatric composites improved less in the group housed at baseline and homeless at final follow-up (p = .019). All homeless groups were more likely than the consistently housed group to have inpatient admissions and incurred higher total treatment costs. The consistently homeless group was more likely to use emergency care than the consistently housed group. CONCLUSIONS: Homelessness affects substance abuse treatment outcomes and costs. Interventions are needed to reduce homelessness among veterans entering substance abuse treatment.

Questions about the HSR&D website? Email the Web Team.

Any health information on this website is strictly for informational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any condition.