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Roumie CL, Mitchel E, Gideon PS, Varas-Lorenzo C, Castellsague J, Griffin MR. Validation of ICD-9 codes with a high positive predictive value for incident strokes resulting in hospitalization using Medicaid health data. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2008 Jan 1; 17(1):20-6.
The PPV of incident strokes was 80% using our strategy of primary discharge diagnosis and excluding prior outpatient diagnoses of stroke. Although an unknown percentage of incident strokes are missed, this group of proven incident stroke patients can be used for etiologic studies of medication exposures.